- Describe why scientists use variables.
- Name the prefixes used in SI and indicate what multiple of 10 each represents using scientific notation.
- Identify the three types of graphs and explain the ways they are used.
- Compare and contrast solutions, colloids, and suspensions.
- Describe how the law of conservation of mass applies to chemical changes.
1. Describe how electrons are arranged in an atom.
2. What are the components of isotopes?
3. Describe how the periodic table is organized.
1. Explain what a chemical formula represents.
2. Identify the particles produced by ionic and covalent bonding.
3. Explain how you determine oxidation numbers.
- Describe how a chemical reactions satisfies the law of conservation of mass.
- What is meant by a balance chemical equation?
- How can you predict what metals will replace others in a compound?
- Compare and contrast exergonic and endergonic reactions.
- Explain how things dissolve.
- Describe the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of gases.
- Compare and contrast acids and bases.
- Explain electrical conductivity.
- Explain what radioactivity is.
- Describe the process of radioactive dating.
- Explain how electroscopes are used to detect radiation.
- Explain nuclear fission and how it can begin a chain reaction.
- Explain the difference between speed and velocity.
- Explain how positive and negative acceleration affect motion.
- Explain how forces and motion are related.
- Explain how inertia and mass are related.
- Explain why thrown objects follow a curved path.
- Describe how momentum can be conserved.
1. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.
2. Explain how to calculate the mechanical energy of a system.
- Describe how work and energy are related.
- Explain how machines make doing work easier.
- Describe the six types of simple machines.
- Explain how thermal energy and temperature are related.
- Explain why thermal expansion occurs.
- Explain how insulators are used to control the transfer of thermal energy.
- Explain how an internal combustion engine converts thermal energy to mechanical energy.
- Contrast transverse and compressional waves
- Describe the relationship between wavelength and frequency.
- Explain why waves change direction as they travel from one material to another.
- Explain how sound travels through different mediums.
- Explain why a prism separates white light into different colors.
- Explain how the human eye enables you to see.
- Describe the difference between the colors of light and the colors of pigments.
- Describe how electric charges exert forces on each other.
- Explain how batteries produce a voltage difference in a circuit.
- Describe the difference between series and parallel circuits
- Explain why some materials are magnetic and some are not.
- Describe how electromagnets are used in modern machinery.
- Explain how a transformer can change the voltage of an alternating current.
1. Explain how fossil fuels are formed.
2. Describe advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear energy to produce electricity.
3.Analyze the need for alternate energy sources.
- Describe Earth's system of water cycling.
- Explain what causes Earth's major wind and pressure systems.
- Explain how latitude and the oceans affect the climate of a region.
- Describe how we influence climate.
- How are the four systems of Earth different?
- How do you write numbers using scientific notation?
- In what ways is scientific information communicated?
- Describe how time zones vary.
- Describe the different map projections and what they are used for.
- Discuss how satellites and sonar are used to map Earth's surface and its oceans.
- Describe the particles within atoms and the structure of atoms.
- Relate the nature of chemical bonds that hold compounds together to the physical structures of compounds.
- Relate the role of thermal energy to changes of state in matter.
1. How do minerals form?
2. What properties do we use to identify and classify minerals?
3. Describe how a mineral is classified as an or or gem.
1. Describe the factors that affect how rocks melt and crystallize.
2. Describe the relationship between cooling rate and grain size.
- Explain the formation and classification of clastic sediments.
- Describe organic sedimentary rocks.
- Explain what changes occur during metamorphism.
- Distinguish between weathering and erosion.
- Describe the relationship of gravity to all agents of erosion.
- Explain the relationship between organic and inorganic soil components.
- Explain how surface water can move weathered materials.
- Describe some of the physical features of stream development.
- Explain the formation of freshwater lakes and wetlands.
- Describe the composition of the atmosphere.
- Explain why atmospheric properties change with altitude.
- Describe the water cycle.
1. Describe how and where air masses form.
2. Compare and contrast wind systems.
3. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of weather observation systems.
4. Describe problems with long-term weather forecasting.
- Describe the life cycle of a thunderstorm.
- Describe how tornadoes form.
- Where and how do hurricanes originate?
- Identify atmospheric events that cause recurring weather patterns.
- Explain why climates vary.
- Describe the criteria used to classify climates.
- Why do climate changes occur?
- Identify how humans impact climate.
- Discuss the origin and composition of the oceans.
- Explain ocean layering.
- Explain the physical properties of waves and how tides form.
- Explain how shoreline features are formed and modified by marine processes.
- Compare the major geologic features of continental margins and ocean basins.
- Explain why continental drift was not accepted when first proposed.
- Explain the process of seafloor spreading.
- Explain the theory of plate tectonics.
- Summarize how convection in the mantle relates to plate movement.
CHAPTER 18 & 19
- Compare and contrast the different types of magma.
- Explain how magma affects overlying crustal rocks.
- Explain the relationship between volcanism and hot spots.
- Contrast three types of seismic waves.
- Explain why data from at least three seismic stations are needed to locate an epicenter.